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    電磁鐵磁場方向的判斷

    • 來源:本站
    • 發布時間:2018-05-23
    • 瀏覽量:381

    電磁鐵的磁場方向可以用安培定則來判斷。
      安培定則是表示電流和電流激發磁場的磁感線方向間關系的定則,也叫右手螺旋定則。
      (1)通電直導線中的安培定則(安培定則一):用右手握住通電直導線,讓大拇指指向電流方向,四指指向通電直導線周圍磁力線方向。
      (2)通電螺線管中的安培定則(安培定則二):用右手握住通電螺線管,使四指彎曲與電流方向一致,那么大拇指所指的那一端是通電螺線管的N極
      性質
      直線電流的安培定則對一小段直線電流也適用。環形電流可看成許多小段直線電流組成,對每一小段直線電流用直線電流的安培定則判定出環形電流中心軸線上磁感強度的方向。疊加起來就得到環形電流中心軸線上磁感線的方向。直線電流的安培定則是基本的,環形電流的安培定則可由直線電流的安培定則導出直線電流的安培定則對電荷作直線運動產生的磁場也適用,這時電流方向與正電荷運動方向相同,與負電荷運動方向相反。
      歷史
      在奧斯特電流磁效應實驗及其他一系列實驗的啟發下 ,安培認識到磁現象的本質是電流 ,把涉及電流 、磁體的各種相互作用歸結為電流之間的相互作用,提出了尋找電流元相互作用規律的基本問題。為了克服孤立電流元無法直接測量的困難 ,安培精心設計了4個示零實驗并伴以縝密的理論分析,得出了結果。但由于安培對電磁作用持超距作用觀念,曾在理論分析中強加了兩電流元之間作用力沿連線的假設,期望遵守牛頓第三定律,使結論有誤。上述公式是拋棄錯誤的作用力沿連線的假設,經修正后的結果。應按近距作用觀點理解為,電流元產生磁場,磁場對其中的另一電流元施以作用力。
      意義
      安培定律與庫侖定律相當,是磁作用的基本實驗定律 ,它決定了磁場的性質,提供了計算電流相互作用的途徑。
      安培力公式
      電流元I1dι 對相距γ12的另一電流元I2dι 的作用力df12為:
      μ0 I1I2dι2 × (dι1 × γ12)
      df12 = ── ───────────
      4π γ123
      式中dι1、dι2的方向都是電流的方向;γ12是從I1dι 指向I2dι 的徑矢。安培定律可分為兩部分。其一是電流元Idι(即上述I1dι )在γ(即上述γ12)處產生的磁場為
      μ0 Idι × γ
      dB = ── ─────
      4π γ3
      這是畢-薩-拉定律。其二是電流元Idl(即上述I2dι2)在磁場B中受到的作用力df(即上述df12)為:
      df = Idι × B

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